Currently, there is a large number of endodontic motor instruments and instrumentation techniques on the market and being used today. Usually, when there are so many instruments and techniques to do the same job, it tells us that no single technique or instrument has found the answer to accomplishing the task in the easiest, most favorable way when compared to the others.
We can choose from hand instrumentation, rotary or reciprocal handpiece-driven instrumentation, ultrasonic and sonic instrumentation, and any combination of these. Not only are the delivery systems different, but there also are many different types of instruments themselves; for instance, files, reamers, headstroms, etc., and each can be made of either stainless steel or nickel titanium.
Each instrument and its accompanying technique have their own advantages and disadvantages. The key is to find a system to use in which all of the components are made to work together synergistically, such that they result in a procedure that is easy for the dentist to achieve the desired end results. In this instance, the desired end result is a debrided, clean canal that has been enlarged, shaped, and finished to receive a gutta-percha and sealed obturation. This should be able to be achieved in an easy, quick, not too expensive, predictable, operator friendly manner. The dentist should not have to be Michelangelo to achieve the desired result consistently on every patient.
We can make access, open into the pulp chamber, and find the root canal treatment equipments. Once the canals are found, I usually use a size #08 gray reamer to obtain my measurement. The measurement is achieved with the use of an apex locator. The apex locator is the only instrument we have that will give us the measurement to the constriction of the canal. Read the instructions for your apex locator, because each manufacturer marks a different point on its measurement scale indicating where the constriction or anatomic apex is located.
In other words, the foot pedal is pushed down in a continuous motion and kept down; the handpiece with the instrument is moved up and down with apical pressure being applied. Each downward peck cuts and opens up the canal wall, and the instrument moves closer to the working length. If the instrument is short of the measurement, it should not be pushed; rather, more pecks should be used to get the instrument to length. Once the canal is enlarged to a size #20 yellow SafeSider, the glide path is considered complete.