November 4, 2016 (Newswire) –Diagnosis, treatment planning and clinical outcome assessment in endodontics depend to a large extent on radiographic examinations. Conventional periapical radiographs, either captured on conventional x-ray film( dental x ray machine portable ) or digital are used for the management of endodontic problems provide limited information because of the combination of their two dimensional nature, geometric distortion, anatomical noise, and temporal perspective.
Useful information such as the presence, location and extent of periradicular lesions, the anatomy of root-canals( root canal treatment equipment ) and the proximity of adjacent anatomical structures provided by periapical radiographs are exposed during endodontic treatment procedures . Inspite of widespread use periapical images, either captured on x-ray film or digital sensors, provide limited information .
The most important limitation of periapical radiographs is that they do not always accurately reflect the anatomy being assessed because of the complexity of the maxillofacial skeleton . In endodontic practice, radiographs are recorded using the paralleling technique / long-cone or right-angle technique, instead of the bisecting angle technique, as it produces more geometrically accurate images.
For accurate reproduction of anatomy in the paralleling technique, the radiographic film or RVG sensor should be placed parallel to the long axis of the tooth, and the x-ray beam should be directed perpendicular both to the image receptor and the tooth being assessed. The lack of long-axis orientation results in geometric distortion of the radiographic image.
Another important principle in endodontic radiology is to display the structures of diagnostic interest onto a background as homogeneous as possible . However, the anatomical structures surrounding the tooth may superimpose and cause difficulty in interpreting periapical radiographs.Various studies have demonstrated the difficulty of radiographically visualizing the periapical lesions confined to the cancellous bone, as the denser overlying cortical plate masks the area of interest.
Anatomical noise also accounts for some underestimation of the size of periapical lesion on radiographic images .Anatomical noise is dependent on several factors such as non-optimal irradiation geometry, overlying anatomy,the thickness of the cancellous bone and cortical plate, and the relationship of the root apices to the cortical plate.