How Ozone is Produced? Ozone Production from Smog Ozone is formed at ground level by a chemical reaction between Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) and/or Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC’s) and UV rays from sunlight. The difference between this unhealthy ozone production and commercial ozone production, or natural ozone production in our ozone layer, is that ozone production from smog is an unhealthy cycle that is hard to break. In ozone production from smog the air quality is altered long term, ozone does not simply break down into harmless oxygen, but instead recombines to form NO2 in the atmosphere and re-start the unhealthy cycle again. See image below for example.
How to Test Ozone Generator Performance? Ozone generators are sized based on the amount of ozone they produce. This article intends to help you understand how to test the production of your ozone generator machine . There are different methods used, and different equipment required for measuring production from each of these styles of ozone generators. Both methods are covered in the linked instructions. Below are some details on each, this should help you understand the right instructions to use for your ozone generator.
How to read performance chart? How to read Ozone Generator performance charts Every ozone generator has ratings to describe the output of ozone in relation to other ozone generators. These ratings are derived from performance testing of an ozone generator. When ozone generators are tested a Performance Chart should be created to understand the performance of that ozone generator across the full scale of normal operation.The chart below is an example of an ozone generator performance chart. This is the format we use at Oxidation Tech, you may have a different chart with a different format, however many of the same fundamentals will be the same.
Ozone Generator Performance Chart Defined Importance of an ozone generator performance chart
Ozone generator performance must be measured and tested to quantify the production of ozone. For most applications, ozone production is the number one factor in choosing an ozone generator for that application. Therefore, it is imperative a reliable performance chart be reviewed prior to the purchase of any device that may produce ozone.
Not only is ozone potentially dangerous to your health, it may not even work at all. Below are four reasons why you should never use an air purifier that produces ozone.
Ozone Generators May Not Work at All Some manufacturers suggest that ozone will render nearly every chemical contaminant in the home harmless by producing a chemical reaction. This is incredibly misleading because a thorough review of scientific research has shown that in order for many of the dangerous chemicals found indoors to be eliminated the chemical reaction process may take months or even years.
The Chemical Reaction Can Be Dangerous Even if ozone generators were proven to be effective at eliminating these chemicals, there are certain side effects everyone must be aware of. Many of the chemicals ozone reacts to results in a variety of harmful by-products. For example, when ozone was mixed with chemicals from new carpet in a laboratory setting, the ozone reduced many of the chemicals but created a variety of dangerous organic chemicals in the air. While the target chemicals were reduced, the dangerous byproducts rendered the process moved.
Ozone Generators Do Not Remove Particulates A third factor to consider when looking at ozone generators is that they do not remove particulates such as dust or pollen from the air. This includes the particles which are primarily responsible for allergic reactions. To combat this, some ozone generators include an ionizer which disperses negatively charged ions into the air. In recent analysis’s, this process was found to be less competent in the removal of air-borne molecules of dust, smoke, pollen, and mold spores than HEPA filters and electrostatic precipitators.
It Is Impossible to Predict Exposure Levels The EPA notes that it is increasingly difficult to determine the actual concentration of ozone produced by an ozone generator because so many different factors come into play. Concentrations will be higher if more powerful devices used in smaller spaces. Whether or not the interior doors are closed rather than open will affect concentrations as well.
Different peoples have different ideas, in facet Ozone Generator Air Purifier can effectively eliminates virtually cigarette/cigar smoke, pet odors, paint/cleaning fumes, dust, water damage, smoke damage, cooking odors, and other air borne irritants.
A dental sterilizer is any piece of equipment that is used to destroy all living organisms within the chamber through the use of specifically programmed sterilization cycles. By definition, Webster’s defines a sterilizer as a piece of equipment used to destroy microorganisms in or on, usually by bringing to a high temperature with steam, dry heat, or boiling liquid. However, there are a broad range of processes used for sterilizing:
While many say that sterilizers and autoclaves are synonymous, they are more like a tree-sterilizers are the trunk that autoclaves branch out from. A sterilizer is a general term for any equipment that can sterilize.
An autoclave sterilizer is a specific device that sterilizes equipment. The name is a combination of two ancient words: auto- which is Greek for self, and clave-which is Latin for key. When combined the two words mean “self-locking”.
One of the things that sets steam autoclaves apart from other sterilizers is this automatic lock feature. Since an autoclave is a sterilizer, its purpose is like sterilizers-to kill or remove all forms of life on an object’s surface such as bacteria, fungi, viruses, and spores. While autoclaves solely utilize steam to disinfect, sterilizers can use chemicals, high pressure, filtration, irritation, or a combination of these methods to eliminate living organisms.
Not all sterilizers can be autoclaves sterilizers because not every device can withstand the high temperatures needed to kill every organism. If someone was to use a different type of equipment the material could melt and morph making it unusable.
How Can UV be Utilized? Beyond water and surface sterilization, UV can be used as a sterilization technique for other types of disinfection. UV can disinfect the air in isolated spaces, which is particularly beneficial in a hospital setting. Installing UV devices like lamps and lights at the top of rooms and other areas of circulation can disinfect the air as it moves, improving both the air quality and the effectiveness of the UV sterilization.
What Type of UV Light is Best? Most UV sterilization devices such as UV sterilizer cabinet use UV-C light as the source of their disinfecting power. UV-C light is an effective solution for sterilization, which is why it is the most widely used light type. However, it can cause some serious damage as well. UV-C light can penetrate human skin and cause damage or injury to the person using it, if not careful. UV-C light can also cause damage to certain plastics and rubber materials over time.
Where Can UV be Used? While UV sterilization can be used as a supplemental infection control strategy for almost any situation, such as disinfecting water and work surfaces as mentioned above, the efficiency of the sterilization make other specialized spaces accessible as well.
Why Use UV Sterilization? UV sterilization is not a new technology, having been discovered in 1879. Discovered to be a useful technology for cleaning infectious spaces, more studies were done to determine the exact beneficial nature of UV for sterilization purposes. Since the 20th century, UV sterilization has been used to disinfect things like water and work surfaces. UV light is a shorter wavelength than visible light, and is able to penetrate and destroy the bodies of viruses and bacteria.
When picking the right UV sterilizing device, the type of light used in the device is the most important factor in determining which device is the right one for your project. Because of its increased efficiency and improved safety, a device like the Far-UV Sterilray™ can be an incredible tool for sterilization and disinfection. For more information about the Far-UV Sterilray™, click the link for our Far-UV Sterilray™ fact sheet.If you are have any problem in choosing sterilization equipment such as dental autoclave sterilizer and dental dry heat sterilizer, you can feel free to contact our customer service.
Currently, there are several rotary endodontic obturation systems in the dental market and all designed with one specific goal in mind – to clean and shape the canal(s). However, several research studies have illustrated that regardless of the type of file used to shape the canal, none are able to contact all the canal walls or surfaces.
Files are generally categorized as: Radial-ended files Enable cleaning and shaping but the procedure is slower and safer Examples include: Profile & K3 Non-radial-ended files Cut more effectively but can also lead to errors if not properly managed Examples include: ProTaper, Twisted Files, Endosequence The most important factor when choosing and utilizing a particular file system is to follow the appropriate technique outlined by the manufacturer and dictated by the design of the file to remove vital or necrotic tissues from the canal spaces. This will optimize the files’ efficiency and minimize damage to the canal and tooth.
Each file system has advantages and disadvantages; the best system is the one you are proficient with and used to handling.
Additionally, clinicians must adhere to the principles of endodontic treatment:
Completely remove infected material from the canal space
Ensure there is a glide-path before using rotary files
Preserve tooth structure while reducing the risk of vertical root fracture in the future
Manage the apical preparation of the canal to avoid transportation or unnecessary enlargement
Carefully clean and shape the canals in furcation areas to decrease furcation involvement
With respect to obturation, there are 3 techniques that are employed.
Warm Vertical Condensation This is the most commonly used technique in North America. Nowadays, there are several techniques which originated from the classic Schilder’s technique. (3) This technique requires clinicians to use a heat carrier (e.g. Touch n’ heat; Calamus Duo; Elements, Super Endo α2) as well as injectable gutta-percha (e.g. Obtura II, Calamus, Super Endo β)
Carrier-based techniques This is a popular option used to fill canal spaces. Different carrier-based systems use different core materials to deliver gutta-percha to the canals. Currently, carriers made of cross-linked gutta-percha such as Gutta-Core (Tulsa/Dentsply) are available which may be easier to remove from the canal in situations where retreatment is necessary.
Lateral condensation In this technique, gutta-percha cones are placed within the canal and finger spreaders are used to place filling material and pack the canal space. There is an increased possibility of vertical root fracture using this procedure if excessive pressure is applied against the canal walls.
At this time, there is no scientific evidence to suggest whether one system is more advantageous over another.