The requirements laid down in national and international standards and draft standards provide helpful guidelines for optimum illumination (Fig. 1, Table I). General room illumination with 500 lx and illumination of the working area with 1000 lx are best achieved with a larger number of fluorescent lamps on the ceiling above and in front of the dental chair. Daylight white lamps with good color rendering are a good combination with changing daylight and the color of light of the operating light. The color of external skin, mucous membrane and teeth appears natural. The eight surgical lights examined differ in quality (Figs. 2-9). The maximum illuminance is between 9000 and 21 000 lx and is thus sufficiently high. The evenness of dental surgical light distribution within an ellipse 9 cm and 18 cm in diameter is between 1 : 4 and 1 : 15 (Figs. 10 and 11). Illuminance can be adjusted to the work in hand by means of controls. If the patient looks into the operating lights (Figs. 2c and 9c), maximum luminances of 5 cd/cm2-20 cd/cm2 occur 8 cm above the illuminance maximum in six operating lights. Luminances of more than 20 cd/cm2 cause squinting and running eyes. A light fitting with more than 200 cd/cm2 should not be used.
Besides the dental surgical light, we can also see the dental examination light during teeth treatment. A sharp fall in illuminance (distinct light/dark threshold) and low luminances to the patient’s eyes can be achieved with very directed light. Very directed light leads to very heavy shadows. Similarly, less specifically directed light leads to softer shadows so that objects in the oral cavity can be discerned easily, but the patient is no longer dazzled. The following operating lights can be recommended if the patient is to suffer as little glare as possible: Den-Tel-Ez Daray, and Belmont Type 040, Faro Sunlight S 70, Ritter Super Starlite; as well as: Chirana Fax, Siemens Sirolux. The following can be recommended for good illumination of the oral cavity: Belmont Type 040, Chirana Fax, Emda Top Spot, Faro Sunlight S 70, Pelton and Crane Light Fantastic Plus, Ritter Super Starlite, Siemens Sirolux. The color temperature, heat radiation, easy handling, stability and price are also important for qualitative assessment.
Air Compressor is used throughout many modern laundering facilities, and goes unnoticed until there is a problem. A closer look at the air compressors in most laundry facilities reveals many simple opportunities to make quick, high impact changes that will lower power costs and keep air-powered equipment operating reliably. A systematic approach helps uncover the best steps to take based on the current situation.
Depending on the size of the operation, top-performing laundering facilities require a compressor between 5 and 15 horsepower. Air compressor manufacturers rate their equipment based on both the horsepower and air capacity (cfm or l/min). To get an idea of the actual cost to operate an dental air compressor, users are left to interpret the horsepower rating of each dental equipment.
For instance, why does one five horsepower compressor cost about a third as much as another? A close examination of the motor nameplate and air capacity of each quickly reveals that the two compressors are not really alike. To obtain the real cost of operation, examining the motor nameplate is a good place to start. The nameplate will reveal the voltage, operating amperes, nominal efficiency and power factor and the service factor of the motor.
Implantable Dental Motor restoring your perfect mouth state
The dental implant motor is a kind of dental implant machine which is often used in dental implant treatment.
About Its Material and Methods
Sixty-one implants were inserted in 7 adult patients (4 female and 3 male; age range 38 to 62 years). All patients were free of any medical conditions interfering with implant treatment. Five (71.43%) patients were smokers and 2 (28.58%) were nonsmokers. All patients had been referred from general dentists and were not previously treated for periodontal disease at the time of the first examination.
Each patient underwent a comprehensive dental and periodontal examination. Periodontal charting included documentation of probing depths, recessions, clinical attachment levels, bleeding on probing, tooth mobility, furcation involvement, and plaque scores. Periodontitis was diagnosed in the presence of more than 4 sites with clinical attachment loss exceeding 4 mm, radiographic evidence of alveolar bone loss, and bleeding on probing. Impressions for diagnostic casts were taken and a panoramic radiograph was obtained. Casts were mounted on a semi-adjustable articulator after face-bow transfer and check-bite registration.
An occlusal analysis was performed, diagnostic wax-ups were prepared on the articulated casts, and restorative treatment needs determined. Once the restorative and periodontal treatment plans were established, radiographic and surgical guides were fabricated to facilitate implant placement. Table 1 shows the patient treatment plan and time schedule.
Periodontal treatment, including surgical treatment if necessary, had been performed previously on all patients.
Unless outlined differently, cylindrical screw implants with a large-grit sandblasted and acid-etched surface and either a 1.8-mm or a 2.8-mm smooth neck were used (ITI Straumann Standard Plus with a 1.8-mm smooth neck; (ITI Straumann Standard with 2.8-mm smooth neck)Implant size was determined based on assessment with a panoramic radiograph taken with a radiographic stent in place, and a clinical examination.
The marathon micro motor machine is an instrument made with motor to use like the pencil and used for working with the turning force from the revolving motor up to 35000 rpm. And it is applied to cutting, grinding, polishing. The use of various burs according to the material and working way are available. The products are mainly used for dental laboratory and dental clinic. The use range has been expanded gradually for Jewelry, Nail, Engraving, orthopedics, Industry market, beauty wood carving, egg carving etc.
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All in all there is a strong trend in the whole world that brushless micro motor will replace carbon brushed micro motor in due time.
With human engineering design, comfortable to operate.
Forward & backward rotating，on & off switch, hand & foot control.
Special material and workmanship, no noise, no vibration and running more smoothly.
Much bigger power, much stronger torque.
Precise speed control system, precise speed adjustment.
Touch panel, more elegant, user friendly design.
With memory and fault warning function, intelligent control system.
Automatic protection against over current, overheating, overloading.
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Dental root form implants are manufactured from a highgrade titanium alloy, the surface of which consists of a micro layer of titanium oxide. The implant surface can also be treated by plasma spraying, acid etching, sandblasting or coated with HA. The removal of plaque and calculus deposits from these implant surfaces with Dental Instruments designed originally for cleaning natural tooth surfaces can result in major alterations to the delicate titanium oxide layer. Altering the surface topography by roughening the surface may enhance calculus and bacterial plaque accumulation.
Resulting scratches, cuts or gouges may also reduce the corrosion resistancy of titanium, and corrosion and mechanical debris can accumulate in the surrounding tissue. The aim of procedures for debriding dental implants should be to remove microbial and other soft deposits, without altering the implant surface, and thereby adversely affect biocompatibility. Increased surface roughness can lead to an increase in bacterial accumulation and resultant soft tissue inflammation. Because of the critical nature of the implant/soft tissue relationship, metal ultrasonic scaler tips, hand scalers or curettes should not be used as they have been shown to significantly alter the titanium surface.
Current methods for professional cleaning of implant or titanium transmucosal elements include the set of plastic ultrasonic tips( ultrasonic scaler ) or hand instruments followed by the prophy cup polishing method or various types of floss and buffing strips. The design of the permanently cemented super structure often does not allow adequate access for the prophy cup, especially in interproximal areas, and plastic instruments are not very efficient for the removal of plaque or mineralized deposits. In addition, the prophy cup and paste method may leave residual paste at the implant/soft tissue interface area.
Airpolishing consists of directing, water, air and sodium bicarbonate towards the tooth or implant surface, resulting in efficient removal of bacterial plaque and soft mineralized deposits. The residual powder is biocompatible and being soluble is not retained at the implant/soft tissue interface( dental implant machine ).
Two airpolishing systems are currently available. One system, typically available on the Dentsply Prophyjet? and Cavijet,? the EMS Airflow, and the Satelec units, delivers the air and powder, typically at 60-80 psi pressure through one nozzel and the water through a separate concentric nozzel. Some mixing of the streams takes place at the interface of the streams, but the centre of the stream consists essentially of dry powder. This “Biphasic” stream is directed at the tooth or implant surface. Several studies have investigated this system, and its effects on implant surfaces, and conclude that this system can result in significant changes to the implant surface.